Twentieth Century Scotland Chronology of Events
A List of important and/or interesting events in Scotland in the twentieth century listed in chronological order.
You can move up and down the timeline using the date bands: the bottom band moves you along centuries quickly and the middle bank moves along decades. Click on individual events to see more details and description.
A series of articles that chronicles Scotland's history through the ages right up to the present day. Articles provide a summary overview of our history and also link to useful and interesting external resources for even more information.
Full Text of David Hume's classic work of philosophy
Stone of Destiny
Like the Great War before it, the Second World War pulled Scotland and England together in a fight against a common enemy - Germany.
Old rivalries and tensions between the two countries were put aside as the whole of Britain put its shoulder to the wheel to defeat the Nazis.
It was during the war, however, that the seeds of the idea of Scottish independence were quietly being sewn - seeds which, just over half a century later, would germinate in the country once again winning home rule.
also known as Battle of Old Byland
Since 1314 King Robert the Bruce had sought a peace treaty in order that the war ravaged realm of Scotland could recover. Edward II was obdurate and impervious to the pleas from his lords, so, each year, the Bruce instigated forays into northern England to extract tribute and booty to help rebuild a bankrupt Scottish economy. He hoped the raids would put pressure on the English barons to persuade King Edward II to negotiate a peace treaty which would recognise Scotland as an Independent Kingdom with himself as its rightful king. Accordingly he sent Sir James Douglas (The Black Douglas) and Sir Thomas Randolph (The Earl of Moray) in a series of wide ranging raids into Northumberland, Cumberland, Lancashire, Durham and Yorkshire to extract tribute which for a medium sized town was 2000 silver merks or £1,300 English pounds (worth £140,000 by today's standards.)
The Treaty of Northampton was the formal document that concluded the First Scottish War of Independence. However, one thing we can conclude about the Treaty of Northampton is that it is easy to get confused about the Treaty of Northampton.
On the one hand, it is sometimes referred to as the Treaty of Edinburgh, which unhelpfully risks confusion with the other Treaty of Edinburgh of 1560. For another thing, it was concluded in one month, endorsed in a later month and then backdated to an even earlier date, just to add another level of confusion. To add one final confusing ingredient, it was made between the English and Scottish Kings, neither of whom were actively present at its ratification.
When historians look back on the beginning of the 21st century and study Scotland, the subject will surely be the question of independence. This article explores how Scotland changed after 1997 as it moved from being seemingly a firm advocate of the union towards an increasingly excitement and enthusiasm for greater independence.
The remarkable intellectual life of eighteenth century Edinburgh.
The battle of Mons Graupius was the first major battle between the Romans and Picts on Scottish soil in either AD83 or 84. The battle was the conclusion of a campaign of intimidation, pacification and conquest conducted by the governor Agricola after 79AD which as was intended to release the mineral wealth of Scotland to the Roman Empire. The normal Roman tactic was to conduct a campaign of destruction which either resulted in a pitched battle that Roman discipline could win or in the submission of tribes. In this case neither happened as the northern tribes simply kept away from the Roman army. The local tribes did conduct a successful guerilla campaign attacking outposts and small contingents.
After over wintering further south, Agrical returned to Scotland in 83AD and finding the tribal federation near Mons Graupius, erected a camp nearby. After the tribes declined to attack him, he marched out and attacked next day and through good discipline and the use of his cavalry reserve, rolled up the line of battle killing a supposed 10000 tribesmen at a cost of 300 dead. After the battle, Agricola returned south and later left britain.
The location of Mons Graupius has never been established and remains a mystery to this day.
Notoriously poor slum in the centre of Glasgow that has now been knocked down. Remains a byword for poverty.