John Baliol Ch 2 Sun, 01 Mar 2015 07:59:50 +0000 Joomla! - Open Source Content Management en-gb (J25 Template) Edward treats Baliol with harshness (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 11:17:41 +0000 Baliol's Subjection
The policy of Edward towards Scotland and its new king, was at once artful and insulting. He treated every assumption of independent sovereignity with rigour and contempt, and lost no opportunity of summoning Baliol to answer before him to the complaints brought against his government; he encouraged his subjects to offer these complaints by scrupulously administering justice according to the laws and customs of Scotland; and he distributed lands, pensions, and presents, with well-judged munificence, amongst the prelates and the nobility. The King of Scotland possessed large estates both in England and Normandy; and in all the rights and privileges connected with them, he found Edward certainly not a severe, almost an indulgent, superior. To Baliol the vassal, he was uniformly lenient and just: to Baliol the king, he was proud and unbending to the last degree. An example of this soon occurred.]]> (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 11:16:38 +0000
Summoned To England
Meanwhile, dissembling his chagrin, he appeared in the English parliament held after Michaelmas, where Macduff was also present. When the cause of this baron noble came on, Baliol was asked what defence he had to offer. "I am," said he, "the King of Scotland. To the complaint of Macduff, or to any matters respecting my kingdom, I dare not make an answer without the advice of my people." " What means this refusal' cried Edward. "Are you not my liegeman,—have you not done homage to me," is it not my summons that brings you here?" To this impetuous interrogation the Scottish monarch firmly answered, "Where the business respects my kingdom, I neither dare, nor can answer, in this place, without the advice of my people."]]> (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 11:15:12 +0000
His reply
It was evident that the resolutions of the parliament were unnecessarily violent, and could not have been carried into effect without the presence of an army in Scotland. The King of England, aware of this, and dreading to excite a rebellion, for which he was not then prepared, listened to the demand of Baliol, and delayed all proceedings until the day after the Feast of the Trinity, in 1294.

Not long after this, Edward, who was a vassal of the King of France for the duchy of Aquitaine, became involved with his lord superior, in a quarrel similar to that between himself and Baliol. A fleet of English vessels belonging to the Cinque Ports, had encountered and plundered some French merchant ships; and Philip demanded immediate and ample satisfaction for the aggression. As he dreaded a war with France, Edward proposed to investigate, by commissioners, the causes of quarrel; but this seemed too slow a process to the irritated feelings of the French king; and, exerting his rights as lord superior, he summoned Edward to appear in his court at Paris, and there answer, as his vassal, for the injuries which he had committed. This order was, of course, little heeded; upon which Philip, sitting on his throne, gave sentence against the English king; pronounced him contumacious, and directed his territories in France to be seized, as forfeited to the crown. Edward soon after renounced his allegiance as a vassal of Philip; and, with the advice of his parliament, declared war against France.]]> (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 11:09:04 +0000
Parliament at Scone
In this way Robert Bruce lost his rich lordship of Annandale. It was given to John Comyn earl of Buchan, who instantly assumed the rights of a proprietor, and took possession of its castle of Lochmaben —an injury which, in that fierce age, could never be forgotten.

Edward, although enraged at the conduct of the Scottish parliament, and meditating a deep revenge, was at this time harrassed by a rebellion of the Welsh, and a war with France. Dissimulation and policy were the weapons to which he had recourse, whilst he employed the interval which he gained in sowing dissension among the Scottish nobles, and collecting an army for the punishment of their rebellion. To Bruce, the son of the competitor for the crown, whose mind was irritated by the recent forfeiture of his estates, he affected uncommon friendship; regretted his decision in favour of the now rebellious Baliol; declared his determination to place him on the throne, of which the present king had shown himself unworthy; and directed him to inform his numerous and powerful friends in Scotland of this resolution.]]> (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 11:08:25 +0000
Baliol confined by the Scots and a Regency appointed
The measures adopted by these guardians were decided and spirited. They, in the name of the King of Scots, drew up an instrument, renouncing all fealty and allegiance to Edward, on account of the many and grievous injuries committed upon his rights and property as King of Scotland.]]> (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 10:56:22 +0000
Treaty with France (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 10:55:34 +0000 A war with England (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 10:50:39 +0000 Edward invades Scotland He assembled a numerous and well appointed army. It consisted of thirty thousand foot, and four thousand heavy-armed horse. He was joined by Beck, the warlike Bishop of Durham, at the head of a thousand foot and five hundred horse; and with this combined force, and the two sacred banners of St John of Beverley and St Cuthbert of Durham carried before the army, he marched towards Scotland. It appears, that some time before this, Edward had thought proper to grant a prolongation of the term agreed on for the decision of the question of Macduff, and had required Baliol to attend him as his vassal at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. On arriving there, he summoned the King of Scotland; and after waiting a few days for his appearance, advanced to the eastern border, and crossed the Tweed with his main army below the Nunnery of Coldstream. On the same day the Bishop of Durham forded the river at Norham; and the whole army, marching along the Scottish side, came before the town of Berwick, then in the hands of the Scots.

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Siege and sack of Berwick
In the midst of this massacre a fine trait of fidelity occurred. The Flemings at this period carried on a lucrative and extensive trade with Scotland, and their principal factory was established in Berwick. It was a strong building, called the Red-hall, which, by their charter, they were bound to defend to the last extremity against the English. True to their engagements, thirty of these brave merchants held out the place against the whole English army. Night came, and still it was not taken. Irritated by this obstinate courage, the English set it on fire, and buried its faithful defenders in the burning ruins. The massacre of Berwick, which took place on Good Friday, was a terrible example of the vengeance which Edward was ready to inflict upon his enemies. Its plunder enriched his army, and it never recovered its commercial importance and prosperity. Sir William Douglas, who commanded the castle, after a short defence surrendered, and swore fealty to the King of England; and its garrison, after taking an oath not to bear arms against that country, were allowed to march out with military honours.]]> (usha hari) Chapter II John Baliol 1292-1305 Tue, 01 Nov 2011 10:42:26 +0000