The policy of Edward towards Scotland and its new king, was at once artful and insulting. He treated every assumption of independent sovereignity with rigour and contempt, and lost no opportunity of summoning Baliol to answer before him to the complaints brought against his government; he encouraged his subjects to offer these complaints by scrupulously administering justice according to the laws and customs of Scotland; and he distributed lands, pensions, and presents, with well-judged munificence, amongst the prelates and the nobility. The King of Scotland possessed large estates both in England and Normandy; and in all the rights and privileges connected with them, he found Edward certainly not a severe, almost an indulgent, superior. To Baliol the vassal, he was uniformly lenient and just: to Baliol the king, he was proud and unbending to the last degree. An example of this soon occurred.