Eleventh Century Scotland
Eleventh Century in Scotland
The end of the first millennium. Scotland, like the rest of Europe, is gripped by fears that the world will end. It doesn't, so everyone goes back to killing each other again.
Macbeth (see separate article) born, most probably in the North east of Scotland. His father is Finnleach, High Steward of Moray.
Kenneth III murdered by his cousin Malcolm at Monzievaird, who then takes the throne of Alba (Scotland) as King Malcolm II.
Macbeth's father, Finnleach, is murdered by his nephews, Malcolm (a different one to the King) and Gillacomgain. Malcolm then succeeds to the throne of Moray. The young Macbeth swears to get his revenge.
Malcolm dies, and his position as High Steward of Moray is taken by Gillacomgain.
Macbeth seizes his chance. Helped by his allies, he rounds up Gillacomgain along with 50 others and burns them all to death.
King Malcolm II of Scotland is murdered at Glamis. It is said that the so-called Malcolm Stone in the manse garden there is his grave slab. He is succeeded by Duncan I - the Duncan of Shakespeare's Macbeth.
Duncan mounts a raid on Durham, but it is a disaster and he is chased by the Northumbrians back into Scotland.
Duncan marches on Macbeth, but is killed in battle against him near Elgin. The story in Shakespeare's version that Macbeth invited Duncan to his castle and then murdered him in bed is totally fictitious. Macbeth then assumes the throne of Scotland.
Margaret, who is to become Scotland's first female saint, is born in southern Hungary. As a child, she moves to England and settles into the English court.
Macbeth goes on pilgrimage to Rome along with Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney. He returns to find his kingdom intact.
Earl Siward of Northumberland invades Scotland. He defeats Macbeth at the battle of Birnam Wood in Perthshire. Most of Macbeth's army are slaughtered, but Macbeth himself escapes and continues to rule.
Macbeth is finally killed in a battle at Lumphanen in Aberdeenshire by Duncan's son Malcolm. The throne is then taken by his stepson Lulach.
Lulach survives only a few months before being defeated and killed by Malcolm at Strathbogie. Malcolm then takes the throne as Malcolm III or Canmore.
Malcolm III (Canmore) marries Margaret at Dunfermline. He meets her when she arrived in Scotland as a refugee and is instantly besotted with her. Their marriage is said to be an extremely happy one. Margaret introduces many of the customs of England to Scotland and carries out many acts of piety and charity. She dies in 1093 and is canonised in 1250.
Margaret invites monks from Canterbury to found a monastery in Dunfermline.
William the Conqueror invades Scotland in reprisal for Malcolm's intervention in English affairs. Malcolm submits at Abernethy and promises not to do it again.
Malcolm does it again. He invades northern England and ravages Northumberland with the usual medieval savagery.
England strikes back. Scotland is invaded and the English build their New Castle on the Tyne.
William the Conqueror dies, and his son William Rufus is crowned in his place.
Expedition time again as Malcolm once again marches into England. Once again, the Normans retaliate and once again, he apologises. A castle is built at Carlisle to try and keep him out.
William Rufus wrests all Cumbria south of the Solway from Scotland.
Malcolm mounts yet another invasion. This time, though, he is killed, allegedly when a lone English solder rides out of the town of Alnwick to offer surrender. The soldier dangles the keys on the end of his spear. When Malcolm reaches up to take them, the Englishman rams the spear through his eye and into his brain. In the ensuring battle his son Edward is also killed, and Margaret dies of grief four days later.
Donald Bane is crowned king.
Donald is deposed by Duncan II, but only rules for a few months before he is killed and Donald gets the throne back.
Donald is captured, blinded and imprisoned by Edgar, who becomes a virtual dependant of William Rufus and Henry II of England.
Edgar dies and Alexander I succeeds him.