Defeat of the Scots at Dunbar

On the first appearance of the Scottish army, Surrey steadily advanced to attack it. On approaching the high ground, it was necessary to deploy through a valley; and the Scots imagined they observed some confusion in the English ranks, when executing this movement. Mistaking this for flight, they precipitately abandoned their strong position on the hills, and rushed down with shouts upon the enemy. Meanwhile, before the lines could meet, the English earl had extricated himself from the valley, and formed into compact order. The Scots, ruined, as they had often been, by their temerity, perceived their fatal error when it was too late. Instead of an enemy in flight, they found an army under perfect discipline, advancing upon their broken and disordered columns; and having in vain endeavoured to regain their ranks, after a short resistance they were completely routed. Three hundred and fifty years after this, Cromwell, on the same ground, defeated the army of the Scottish Covenanters, which occupied the same admirable position, and with equal folly and precipitancy deserted it. Surrey's victory was complete, and for the time decided the fate of Scotland. Teh thousand men fell on the field, or in the pursuit. Sir Patrick de Graham, one of the noblest and wisest of the Scottish barons, disdained to ask for quarter, and was slain in circumstances which extorted the praise of the enemy.

A great multitude, including the principal of the Scottish nobility, were taken prisoners; and, next day, the King of England coming in person with the rest of his army before Dunbar, the castle surrendered at discretion. The Earls of Athole, Ross, and Menteith, with four barons, seventy knights, and many other brave men, submitted to the mercy of the conqueror.All the prisoners of rank were immediately sent in chains to England, where they were for the present committed to close confinement in different Welsh and English castles. After some time, the king compelled them to attend him in his wars in France; but even this partial liberty was not allowed them, till their sons were delivered into his hands as hostages."

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